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1. What are the tables involved in the Transfer to GL and GL posting?
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Subledger Tables

Transfer Journal Entries to GL (XLAGLTRN) process takes the subledger journals and inserts records into the Interface Tables

Interface Tables

Journal Import (GLLEZL) then reads from the interface table and creates records in the GL Tables

GL Tables

GL Posting process then posts to the GL_BALANCES table.
What are the different methods to transfer Subledger journals to GL?
GL Transfer can be spawned during Online Accounting using the "Final Post" option for a specific document (Example: AP Invoice and AR Transaction).
Example: Navigation in Payables: Invoices/Entry/Invoices: Action: Create Accounting/Final Post. This spawns the GL Transfer, the Journal Import, Data Manager and the GL Posting processes. This request transfers ALL the final accounted data for that document. This method of transfer uses the interface table GL_INTERFACE to move the journals to the general ledger.

GL Transfer can also be spawned by the Create Accounting concurrent request when submitted with the "Transfer to GL" parameter set to Y.
Example: Navigation in Payables: Other/Request/Run: Create Accounting
This spawns the journal import and the data manager processes. The GL Posting process is spawned if the Post to GL parameter is set to Yes when submitting the Create Accounting. This request transfers all the final accounting created by the Create Accounting request that spawned it. This method uses the interface table XLA_GLT_.

GL Transfer can be submitted in standalone mode using the concurrent request "Transfer Journal Entries to GL".
Example: Navigation in Payables: Other/Request/Run: Transfer Journal Entries to GL
This spawns the Journal Import and the Data Manager programs. This request transfers all the final accounting that exists for the given ledger and end date. This method uses the interface table XLA_GLT_.
What columns indicate the Transfer Status of accounting data in subledger?
The XLA_AE_HEADERS table shows the transfer status of the accounting data, after successful transfer to the GL and Journal Import:
XLA_AE_HEADERS.gl_transfer_status_code = Y
XLA_AE_HEADERS.gl_transfer_date is not null
XLA_AE_HEADERS.group_id is not null
For 11i data upgraded to R12, the transfer status can be determined using the following
XLA_AE_HEADERS.gl_transfer_status_code = Y
XLA_AE_HEADERS.gl_transfer_date is null
XLA_AE_HEADERS.group_id is null
XLA_AE_HEADERS.upg_batch_id is not null --> indicates 11i data

How many group_ids are created during the transfer process when there is a primary ledger and associated ALC/reporting ledger?
The primary ledger data and associated ALC/reporting ledger data goes into one group_id. Data from this one group_id can be split across multiple GL Batches based on other criteria, such as je_category/date/period. However, one GL Batch can only be associated to one group_id.
You can also refer below notes on My Oracle Support
This document covers the following topics:

  • Understanding the AP-SLA-GL reconciliation

  • Reconciling the amounts and understanding the data flow between SLA and GL

  • Establishing a baseline for addressing 11i upgrade data related issues.

  • Reconciling R12 data and addressing R12 Trial Balance-GL issues

  • Understanding how UNDO Accounting can impact Reconciliation
R12 Mapping Between Subledger Tables, SLA and GL Tables (Doc ID 871622.1)
With the introduction of Subledger Accounting(SLA) it has become very difficult to find the relationship at table level between the subledgers and XLA Tables and General Ledger tables. We will examine the Table links of Accounting Data Flow as data moves from PO tables to RRSL to XLA Tables to GL Tables. We will present some relevant sql scripts to use in collecting subledger data, SLA data and GL data

SLA Data Flow and Table Links (Doc ID 802966.1)
This link will help .... How does the data flow from Inventory to General Ledger(GL)? What are the tables that are involved?