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1. What are the tables involved in the Transfer to GL and GL posting?
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Subledger Tables
XLA_AE_HEADERS
XLA_AE_LINES
XLA_DISTRIBUTION_LINKS

Transfer Journal Entries to GL (XLAGLTRN) process takes the subledger journals and inserts records into the Interface Tables

Interface Tables
GL_INTERFACE / XLA_GLT_

Journal Import (GLLEZL) then reads from the interface table and creates records in the GL Tables

GL Tables
GL_JE_BATCHES
GL_JE_HEADERS
GL_JE_LINES
GL_IMPORT_REFERENCES

GL Posting process then posts to the GL_BALANCES table.
What are the different methods to transfer Subledger journals to GL?
a) ONLINE MODE
GL Transfer can be spawned during Online Accounting using the "Final Post" option for a specific document (Example: AP Invoice and AR Transaction).
Example: Navigation in Payables: Invoices/Entry/Invoices: Action: Create Accounting/Final Post. This spawns the GL Transfer, the Journal Import, Data Manager and the GL Posting processes. This request transfers ALL the final accounted data for that document. This method of transfer uses the interface table GL_INTERFACE to move the journals to the general ledger.

b) BATCH MODE
GL Transfer can also be spawned by the Create Accounting concurrent request when submitted with the "Transfer to GL" parameter set to Y.
Example: Navigation in Payables: Other/Request/Run: Create Accounting
This spawns the journal import and the data manager processes. The GL Posting process is spawned if the Post to GL parameter is set to Yes when submitting the Create Accounting. This request transfers all the final accounting created by the Create Accounting request that spawned it. This method uses the interface table XLA_GLT_.

c) CONCURRENT REQUEST
GL Transfer can be submitted in standalone mode using the concurrent request "Transfer Journal Entries to GL".
Example: Navigation in Payables: Other/Request/Run: Transfer Journal Entries to GL
This spawns the Journal Import and the Data Manager programs. This request transfers all the final accounting that exists for the given ledger and end date. This method uses the interface table XLA_GLT_.
What columns indicate the Transfer Status of accounting data in subledger?
The XLA_AE_HEADERS table shows the transfer status of the accounting data, after successful transfer to the GL and Journal Import:
XLA_AE_HEADERS.gl_transfer_status_code = Y
XLA_AE_HEADERS.gl_transfer_date is not null
XLA_AE_HEADERS.group_id is not null
For 11i data upgraded to R12, the transfer status can be determined using the following
XLA_AE_HEADERS.gl_transfer_status_code = Y
XLA_AE_HEADERS.gl_transfer_date is null
XLA_AE_HEADERS.group_id is null
XLA_AE_HEADERS.upg_batch_id is not null --> indicates 11i data

How many group_ids are created during the transfer process when there is a primary ledger and associated ALC/reporting ledger?
The primary ledger data and associated ALC/reporting ledger data goes into one group_id. Data from this one group_id can be split across multiple GL Batches based on other criteria, such as je_category/date/period. However, one GL Batch can only be associated to one group_id.
You can also refer below notes on My Oracle Support
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  • Understanding how UNDO Accounting can impact Reconciliation
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